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1. The pathogen is complex: In most cases, air sacculitis is not a single disease, but a symptom of systemic infection. Bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, feeding management, etc. can all cause air sacculitis.
2. Poor environment: incomplete disinfection, insufficient ventilation, too much harmful gas is often accumulated in the house, if the concentration of ammonia in the air is too high, it will damage the cilia of the respiratory tract, reduce the secretion of mucus, and cause diseases in the lungs, and the air sacs will affect the large intestine The clearance rate of bacilli and other pathogens is greatly reduced, and the occurrence of air sacculitis is inevitable.
3. Difficulty in medication: From anatomical point of view, the air sac wall is very thin and there are few blood vessels. It is difficult for the drug to reach an effective concentration in the air sac. This makes it difficult for air sacculitis to be clinically effectively treated, which is likely to cause serious consequences.
4. Special structure: There are nine air sacs, which are formed by the branches of the bronchi and the lungs. The interconnected structural characteristics of “upper respiratory tract-lungs-air sacs-bones” make the flesh body form a semi-open system. Pathogenic microorganisms in the air can easily enter the bones through the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and air sacs to form systemic infections. In addition, because there is no diaphragm, the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity are closely connected, and it is easy to cause air sac infection after the digestive tract occurs. These characteristics are the main reasons for the frequent occurrence of sarcocystitis.

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Symptoms of air sacculitis
The respiratory symptoms of the disease are obvious. Open mouth and stretch the neck to breathe, wheeze, flutter the nose, snoring, swollen head, swollen eyes, watering, individual swelling, lethargy, loss of appetite, or even abolishment, increased thirst, yellow-white diarrhea, feathers Loose and messy, dull, dry and dull crown claws.
Dissecting symptoms
In case of death, the crown is purple and the mouth is full of mucus. In severe cases, the skin under the abdomen can be cut to see yellow fat or inflammatory exudate. Open the abdominal cavity, the thoracic air sacs are filled with yellow cheese-like material, pericardial effusion, and the abdominal air sacs are foamy and yellow cheese-like materials. 30% of the deaths have pericarditis and perihepatitis lesions, splenomegaly, small intestine empty, nasal cavity The trachea is full of mucus! The liver is slightly swollen, pericarditis, perihepatitis, air sacs are turbid, severe cases have yellow and white cheese-like material, peritonitis, and a layer of yellow and white cheese-like material (typical lesions) is wrapped around the entire lung, and the lungs are congested , Bleeding, throat bleeding, severe tracheal bleeding. There is no obvious change in the papilla of the glandular stomach, no change in the muscular stomach, the entire intestine is congested, the mucous membrane falls off, and the kidney is swollen (interstitial hemorrhage).
 PMC4777797_VetWorld-8-103-g003
From the anatomical structure, the air sacs of broilers are very thin, the inner layer is a single layer of flat epithelium, and the ciliated columnar epithelium is only at the opening, and the outer layer is a single layer of flat epithelium that is continuous with the serosa. Between the two layers of epithelium is Fibrous connective tissue, containing elastic fibers, is not only thin in structure, but also has few blood vessels. Therefore, after broiler air sacs are inflamed, it is difficult for the absorbed drugs to reach an effective concentration in the air sacs through conventional medication methods such as injection, drinking, mixed feeding, etc. This makes it difficult to obtain effective treatment of air sacculitis in clinical practice. It is easy to cause serious consequences.
1. Strictly disinfect. (Drinking water disinfection, with disinfection)
2. Choose the best immunization route. (Freeze-dried seedlings and oil seedlings are exempted)
3. Strengthen management and communication. (Reduce the stocking density, increase the wind, and avoid the use of mildew)
4. The treatment of poultry respiratory diseases should be based on the cause and symptoms.

 


Post time: Sep-23-2021