How to supplement mineral elements and vitamins for cattle and sheep?
1. Scientifically raising cattle and supplementing vitamins
1. Supplementary vitamin A and vitamin D supplementation for pregnant cattle can improve the survival rate of farrowing. Some calves can’t stand after birth, twitch, and won’t suck, which is caused by calcium deficiency in embryos. Some calves are congenitally blind or even without eyeballs, which may be caused by vitamin deficiency during embryonic development, and calcium deficiency is directly related to vitamin A and vitamin D deficiency.
2. Beef cattle gain weight quickly by supplementing vitamin A. Beef cattle are more prone to lack of vitamin A in winter. Because wheat straw, corn straw, dry mountain grass and other feeds, the content of vitamin A is low. In addition, beef cattle are fed more concentrates, and the content of vitamin A in high-concentration feeds is also very low. During intensive fattening, beef cattle gain weight rapidly and require an increased amount of vitamin A. When the supply of vitamin A is insufficient, the feed intake of beef cattle decreases and the weight gain slows down. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to supplementing vitamin A to beef cattle. The Wechat Public Account of Cattle House recommends that each head of beef cattle that start fattening should take 100,000 units of vitamin A daily for 3 consecutive days, then every 3 days, and so on. You can also inject 500,000 to 1 million units of vitamin A intramuscularly, once every 10 days, and so on.
3. Vitamin D deficiency. ①Beef cattle are prone to rickets and rickets when vitamin D is deficient, so vitamin D should be supplemented for house-raised beef cattle. If beef cattle are exposed to the sun for more than 6 hours, there is no need for additional vitamin D supplementation in the diet. ②The effects of vitamin D deficiency on dairy cows, especially calves, pregnant and lactating cows, are first of all slowed in growth and development and significantly reduced in production performance. Loss of appetite, poor growth and development, weight loss, rough and dull coat. At the same time, the ossification process is hindered, the metacarpal and basal bones are enlarged, the forelimbs are bent forward or laterally, and the knee joint is enlarged and arched. With the development of the disease, the movement of the diseased cattle decreased, the gait was restrained, and the limping was limp. Preventive measures: Vitamin D is most abundant in cod liver and fish oil, and is also abundant in eggs, mammalian liver and legumes, but it is very little in general plant-based feeds.
For cattle at different developmental stages—calves, finishing cows and adult dairy cows, etc., supplement animal protein feeds, especially cod liver and fish oil, and intramuscular injection of vitamin D oil if necessary. Usually should also pay attention to the calcium, phosphorus content and proportion in the diet.
It is a component of glutathione peroxidase, which can prevent the accumulation of peroxidized lipids in the body, and protect the cell membrane and mitochondria; it is necessary for the conversion of methionine to cysteine It is synergistic with vitamin E, plays an antioxidant role in animals, promotes the absorption and storage of vitamin E, and also participates in amino acid metabolism in the body. Normal growth and fertility of sheep. Selenium deficiency can cause liver necrosis, myocardial degeneration and pancreatic atrophy, etc., resulting in nutritional muscle atrophy in young sheep and white muscle disease, which is the most common and most serious in lambs. For adult sheep, it is manifested as reproductive dysfunction, reduced fertility, and severe weight loss. There are large areas of selenium-deficient areas in Northeast my country, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, Hebei and other provinces, and attention should be paid to selenium supplementation.
Cobalt deficiency will reduce the activity of rumen bacteria, inhibit the microbial synthesis of B vitamins and vitamin K, reduce the digestion and absorption of vitamins A, D and E in the feed, and affect the reproductive performance of ewes. In the case of deficiency, cobalt oxide or cobalt salts should be added to the sheep’s diet at a dose of 0.1 mg per animal per day.
Copper is the main hematopoietic element. Copper deficiency can lead to impaired iron absorption and anemia, manifested by growth failure, bone deformities, and loss of coat color. Newborn lambs suffered from sway disease caused by spinal cord and brain lesions and ataxia. In some areas of salinized reed meadows in my country, typical lamb copper deficiency has occurred; copper deficiency in Hu sheep caused rumen fibrous nodule. When copper is deficient, the effect of supplementing copper sulfate is the best, because the liver cells of sheep have a strong affinity for copper and are easy to accumulate. Attention must be paid to preventing steel poisoning.
Zinc is a component of many enzymes, proteins and ribose in sheep. The most obvious symptoms of deficiency are thickening of epidermal cells, keratinization, loss of appetite, stunted growth and decreased fecundity, and easy shedding of wool. In some areas of Inner Mongolia, sheep “big cloth shirt” disease has occurred due to zinc deficiency, and rams have decreased ejaculation volume and semen quality. Zinc can be supplemented by subcutaneous injection of long-acting zinc or as a compound additive.
5. Manganese and Iodine
When sheep are deficient in manganese, the oestrus of ewes is not obvious, and they are prone to miscarriage; the spermatogenesis of rams is abnormal. Iodine deficiency will reduce the basal metabolism of sheep, dry skin, brittle hair easily fall off, weight loss, poor semen quality of rams, etc. When iodine is deficient, supplement with potassium iodide, calcium iodide or iodized table salt.
Post time: Mar-08-2022