What are the symptoms of cattle and sheep mold poisoning? What should we do?
After cattle and sheep eat moldy feed or pasture, mold poisoning will occur due to the large amount of mold in it. The disease is mainly caused by sheep feeding in the house, especially in the rainy season, the feed is prone to mildew. Sick sheep clinically mainly show diarrhea, neurological abnormalities, and even death in severe cases, causing serious harm to the development of sheep breeding. Let’s take a look at it together: the clinical symptoms of sheep mildew feed poisoning and the prevention and control measures of sheep mildew feed poisoning.
1. Clinical symptoms
Sick sheep mainly show listlessness, loss of appetite, stop rumination, unkempt coat and loss of luster, weakness of limbs, teeth grinding, dry nose, yellow stain or paleness of visible mucosa, turbid cornea, and intermittent abdominal pain. Poisoning of lactating ewes can also lead to reduced milk production or complete cessation of milk production.
Acute poisoning. Sick sheep will show listlessness, loss of appetite, convulsions, arching back, grinding teeth, moving in a circular motion, unable to stand stably, and easily fall to the ground; yellow stains of mucous membranes, conjunctivitis, allergic reactions to light, and even complete blindness. Submandibular edema; accompanied by diarrhea, tenesmus, even prolapse, physical collapse, death will occur after about 48h.
Chronic poisoning. After being poisoned, lambs will show loss of appetite, growth retardation, panic, circling movement or blindly hovering, diarrhea, and weight loss. After being poisoned, adult sheep will show listlessness, decreased feed intake, relaxation of the front stomach, and jaundice. A miscarriage occurs after the pregnant ewes are poisoned, a full-term stillbirth can be discharged or premature delivery, and because the milk also contains mycotoxins, the offspring of lambs are also poisoned. In addition, because mycotoxins will affect the activity of lymphocytes, it will promote the weakening of the body’s resistance and prone to secondary diseases.
2. Pathological changes
Yellow staining of the subcutaneous tissue and fat of the dead sheep, a small amount of light red or yellow effusion in the abdominal cavity and thoracic cavity, and bleeding spots on the surface of the serous membrane; the liver is enlarged, obviously hardened, and the texture is brittle, and the surface is white with needle tips or rice grains on the surface. Or yellow necrosis; the gallbladder is obviously atrophied, containing only a small amount of bile, and the color is light; the lungs are enlarged, and local fleshy lesions, with white necrosis on the surface; the kidneys are enlarged and pale, and the lymph nodes are edema , Congestion; bleeding in the rumen mucosa, and ulcers ranging from needle tip to pea size, and easy to fall off; edema and congestion of different degrees occur in the intestine, local bleeding in the duodenal mucosa, and congestion in the mesenteric lymph nodes.
clinical diagnosis. It is mainly to consult the farmers to find out whether the purchased concentrate has been stored for a long time, and to check some soybean meal and corn on the spot to determine whether there is obvious mildew and fever. If the above conditions exist, combined with the incidence, clinical symptoms, and pathological changes of the sick sheep, the initial diagnosis is mold feed poisoning.
Bacteria check. Under aseptic conditions, the liver of a sheep with typical symptoms was taken for contact, and Gram staining was carried out for microscopic examination, and no bacteria were detected. At the same time, under aseptic conditions, the liver and spleen of the sick sheep were inoculated on a common agar plate, and they were cultured for 24-48h at a constant temperature of 37°C, and no bacteria grew. Based on the above results, the occurrence of bacterial diseases can be ruled out.
4. Prevention measures
Emergency treatment. When it is confirmed that the sheep has been poisoned by eating mold feed, immediately stop feeding mold feed, and at the same time completely remove the remaining feed in the trough, and change to feed fresh concentrate without mold and pollution. In addition, 2″kg mold adsorbent is added to each ton of feed, and it is used continuously for 6 days.
Chemical medicine treatment. The main treatment principles are fluid replacement to protect the liver and avoid secondary infections. Sick sheep can be injected intravenously with a mixture of 200mL 50% glucose injection, 500mL 5% sugar saline, 4mL vitamin Ks, 4mL vitamin C, 20mL adenosine triphosphate, 5mL 10% ceftiofur sodium Liquid medicine, once a day for 3 consecutive days. In addition, in order to prevent secondary infections, antibiotics, such as penicillin and streptomycin, can be used as appropriate, but the use of sulfa drugs is prohibited.
Herb medicine treatment. The main treatment principles are to remove dampness and detoxification, and to soothe the liver and promote blood circulation. Take Sg licorice, 10 g white peony, 10 g Yinchen, 10 g Poria, 10 g Baizhu, 10 g Salvia, 15 g Bupleurum, 10 g Guizhi, 1 dose per day for 3-5 days. In the prescription, Chaihu has the effects of soothing the liver and relieving depression and raising yang, and the white peony has the effects of soothing the nerves, nourishing the blood and restraining the yin, and is the main medicine; as an adjuvant, Danshen has the effects of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, and cooling blood to eliminate carbuncle; It has the effect of promoting yang and transforming qi, warming the meridian and promoting the pulse, Poria has the effect of calming the mind, soothing the mind, distilling water and dampening, Atractylodes has the effect of drying dampness and invigorating the spleen, and Yinchen has the effect of relieving jaundice and clearing dampness and heat. All are adjuvants; licorice It has the effect of detoxification and reconciles all medicines. The combination of the above drugs has the effect of removing dampness and detoxification, soothing the liver and promoting blood circulation.
Strengthen feed management. The feed should be controlled during processing, especially to ensure that the water content in the feed is appropriate, and to set a reasonable cooling process after high-temperature pelleting. Strengthen management during transportation and storage of feed to avoid mildew caused by factors such as high temperature, humidity, packaging damage, rain, and excessive temperature difference between day and night. In addition, a certain amount of antifungal agent can be added to the feed, which can effectively prevent its mildew. According to the above principles, the harvested forages and grains must be completely dried; the haystacks should be protected from moisture and rain, and the concentrated feed such as corn, bran, soybean meal, etc. must be placed in a dry place with a distance of at least 30 cm from the ground. , And make sure to tighten the mouth of the feed bag, and keep good ventilation during warm and rainy periods to avoid mildew in the feed. In addition, during the storage of concentrates, propionic acid can also be added to avoid the production of mold, thereby inhibiting the production of toxins. The forage must be carefully inspected before use. If it emits a musty smell or changes in color, it is prohibited to feed it, and ensure that it is fresh feed that
does not have mildew.
Post time: Nov-18-2021